Category Archives: Worms

Wonderful Worms and Other Squidgy Things at Prisk Cove

After the summer rush, Cornwall is starting to breathe again. Our usual autumn trip to Brittany was cancelled months ago, but we’re making up for that with an exotic adventure to visit friends on the Lizard. Junior disappears off to play leaving some of us adults to our own devices. Rockpooling it is then!

We’re unsure how productive this session will be; there is a definite change in the air this week. Huge ships are still lurking in the shelter of the bay after the recent storms and kelp is starting to pile up on the strandline. The stiff breeze makes it hard to see into the pools at times and I’m glad of my waders to keep me warm and dry.

Prisk Cove at low tide

In the distance there is a small group, perhaps from Falmouth University or the Rock Pool Project. It’s an unusual sight this year. So many events have been cancelled. It makes me think of how my Wildlife Watch groups and how much the children have missed out on. I’m not ready for close contact with groups just yet, but perhaps it won’t be long now.

This is the season of blue-rayed limpets. They will soon grow and move down into the holdfasts of the kelp but for now they glitter against the seaweed on which they feed. Some fronds of kelp are pockmarked with holes that these tiny molluscs have carved out.

Not all the blue-rayed limpets are on kelp. This one is tucking into seaweed on a rock.

Things may be winding down for the winter but the intensity of colours on the shore is as strong as ever. Even the sand is a treasure trove, a kaleidoscope of shell fragments interspersed with pieces of the knobbly skeletons of calcareous algae. The closer I look the more I see.

‘Maerl’ sand at Prisk Cove – made from the skeletons of dead calcareous algae.

There are three species of red seaweed that form beds of these loose pieces, collectively known as maerl. The top layer of live algae exposed to the light is a deep pink, while underneath the dead layers bleach to look like pale pretzel fragments. Offshore, these seaweed can form deep beds, which provide endless hiding places for small marine creatures.

Deep pink ‘maerl’ type calcareous algae.

This beach is always rich in brightly coloured worms, sea squirts, sponges and other animals that I tend to unscientifically group together as squidgy things. They aren’t all easy to identify – especially the sponges, which often require a microscope – but some creatures, like this strawberry worm (Eupolymnia nebulosa), are easy to recognise.

Strawberry worm (Eupolymnia nebulosa)

Unafraid to mix spots and stripes, this lipstick pink terebellid is one of the most glamorous worms on the shore. It sports a fringe of stylish bristles and crowns its unique look with an expansive mop of tentacles and bushy red gills.

Strawberry worm (and friends).

Elsewhere, some of the rocks and seaweeds are covered in a layer of squidgy things.

The eye-catching collage of flower shapes created by colonies of star ascidian sea squirts seem like they have been painted onto every surface. I can’t help taking photos of each new colour scheme.

Scroll through this slideshow to see some of the different star ascidian colours…

Looking at one thing leads to another. Next to a patch of star ascidian, my friend notices an odd-looking brown blob. It is plant-like: brown, stumpy and gnarled like an old stem.

Styela clava sea squirt with star ascidian in the background – spot the flatworm!

Despite appearances, this is a distant cousin of the star ascidian. Styela clava, sometimes known as the leathery sea squirt or the clubbed tunicate, is a single animal rather than a colony of zooids. It arrived in the UK 1950s. Originally from the North West Pacific region, it is known to sometimes cause problems by growing in huge numbers on mussel farming ropes.

A movement draws my attention back to the star ascidian.

I sometimes spot the sea squirts opening and closing their siphons, but this is a larger shift. There is another squidgy animal at work here.

A flatworm is flowing across the surface of the sea squirt, moulding its body to the ridges and slopes as it goes. The worm is a fabulous midnight blue, flecked with yellow, yet it blends so perfectly with the colours of the star ascidian that I can’t make out its edges.

There are several flatworms on the sea squirt, but it is only when one ventures onto the rock that I can see it properly.

Cycloporus papillosus flatworm.

More blobby treasures abound on this shore: gem anemones, red speckled anemones, yellow-ringed sea squirts, golf ball sponges and more.

Gem anemone
Anthopleura ballii – the red-speckled anemone
Yellow-ringed sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) with a photo-bombing brittle star.

There is never enough time to see everything before the tide returns, so I focus on looking for all my favourite squidgy creatures of all – sea slugs.

Elysia viridis, the solar powered sea slug chomping on green seaweed.

The autumn isn’t the best time of year for sea slugs, however my friend, Other Half and I are the most dedicated little gang of slug-finders you could hope to meet. With great shrieks of delight, we uncover a few in the course of our explorations.

Berthella plumula sea slug.

Slugs don’t have an especially cuddly reputation, but the Jorunna tomentosa is covered in tiny hair-like structures that make it look like a teddy bear to my eye. Even its rhinophores have a fuzzy look about them. There is a good reason for this sea slug’s appearance: all that fluffiness is perfect for hiding on the sponges that it eats.

Jorunna tomentosa – a fluffy sea slug.
Jorunna tomentosa’s rhinophores close-up… looking like teddy bear ears!

It’s clearly a good day for ‘hairy’ slugs because my next find is a bright-white fluffy sheep of a slug, the Acanthodoris Pilosa. Nudibranch slugs are a likeable bunch, but this one is especially appealing with its floofed-up gills and those towering rhinophores balancing on its head like two leaning helter-skelters.

Acanthadoris pilosa
Acanthodoris pilosa sea slug.

It won’t be long before the autumn gales rage through, bringing the darker winter days behind them. It is strange to think of these tiny squidgy things clinging on here through everything the Atlantic will throw at them. By the time the spring sunshine returns, I may be able to start leading Wildlife Watch groups again. It will be exciting to make up for lost time.

Bonus sea slug…. Polycera sp. with my fingertip for scale
Polycera sp. sea slug moving surprisingly quickly towards its bryozoan meal. The yellow speck on the right may be a second, even tinier slug.
And another squishy thing! Calvadosia campanulata stalked jellyfish.
Sponge – Aplysilla sulfurea

Whatever the weather, always stay safe in the rock pools. Follow my rockpooling tips to look after yourself and the wildlife on the shore.

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Worms, slugs and jelly

As anyone who spends time around children knows, they generally delight in things that adults find yucky. So, what better for a day out with Cornish Rock Pools Junior than a visit to a sheltered, silty shore? It’s the perfect environment for all things slimy.

It didn’t take us long to find one of the strangest – and stinkiest – animals on the shore, the bootlace worm. We turned a stone and on one side was the head and part of the tangled body of the brown worm. The rest of the body spanned across to the next boulder like a rope bridge.

The thin, long body of a bootlace worm stretched between two rocks.
The long, thin body of a bootlace worm stretched between two rocks.

The bootlace worm is massively long – the longest recorded apparently came in at 55 metres, making it the longest animal in the Guinness Book of Records. This one would probably have spanned at least 7 metres. Given the difficulties of unravelling the tangled body without breaking it coupled with the fact it exudes acrid-smelling, toxic mucus, we decided against measuring it.

On another rock we found a prettier creature, the candy-stripe flat worm. This one had moulded its paper-thin body to the contours of the rock. When they’re not oozing along like this, they’re reasonable swimmers, albeit with a technique that resembles a tissue blowing along the pavement.

A small candy stripe flatworm oozing along its way.
A small candy stripe flatworm oozing along its way.

We started the search for jellies. The sheltered clumps of seaweed seemed a likely spot for stalked jellies, although Junior’s fascination with kicking up ‘pyroclastic flows’ of silt did hamper visibility a little. For a while we found nothing but ‘snotworm’ eggs, the green eggclumps of the green leaf worm.

When we did find our first jelly blob, it turned out to be another kiddy favourite, a slug. Out of the water, it was a shapeless splodge of yellow. In the water, it stretched out its white body to display yellow stripes and various yellow appendages and antennae.

Sea slug - Polycera quadrilineata
Sea slug – Polycera quadrilineata

As we watched the Polycera quadrilineata slug’s slow progress along the seaweed, we noticed another, more flowery jelly-blob behind it. This was the first of several Lucernariopsis cruxmelitensis stalked jellyfish we found.

Stalked jellyfish - a Lucernariopsis cruxmelitensis.
Stalked jellyfish – a Lucernariopsis cruxmelitensis.

The incoming current was throwing up a cloud of silt, but we managed to find eight stalked jellies among this small area of the shore. Not a bad haul of squidgy, slimy, child-pleasing creatures.

Stalked jellies have stinging tentacles like their cousins, the jellyfish, but live attached to seaweed rather than floating in the ocean.
Stalked jellies have stinging tentacles like their cousins, the jellyfish, but live attached to seaweed rather than floating in the ocean.

 Here are some of our other favourites from this expedition:

A sea spider. These delicate little creatures are perfectly camouflaged among the seaweed.
A sea spider. These delicate little creatures are perfectly camouflaged among the seaweed.

Tubulanus annulatus. This strikingly coloured worm was a first for me and is more commonly seen offshore.
Tubulanus annulatus. This strikingly coloured worm was a first for me and is more commonly seen offshore.

I was right at the depth-limit for my wellies when I found this topknot flat fish scooting along the bottom of a pool. Junior loves their asymmetrical faces.
I was right at the depth-limit for my wellies when I found this topknot flat fish scooting along the bottom of a pool. Junior loves their asymmetrical faces.

More slime! Cowries are able to dangle from the rocks using their strong mucus trails.
More slime! Cowries are able to dangle from the rocks using their strong mucus trails. This one’s in typical abseiling position.

Searching for Starfish

We’ve been planning this trip since our visitors first came to Cornwall a year ago. They’re determined to try rock pooling having missed out last time. This week the tides are perfect. They live near the sea back home in Essex, but they tell me it’s not the same and I can well believe it.

They’ve never seen a starfish in the wild before. My mission is clear.

Getting stuck in to Cornish rock pooling
Getting stuck in to Cornish rock pooling

With picnic and buckets in hand, we set out, treading gingerly over seaweed and searching among the rocks. Within minutes, our friends are putting yesterday’s hasty tutorial on crabs into practice as they try picking them up safely. They score top marks on this and on working out whether the crabs are male or female from the shape of their tails. We find several species of crustacean, including this large squat lobster.

A squat lobster - galathea squamifera
A squat lobster – galathea squamifera

While our visitors search the shallow pools, finding anemones, fish, prawns and hermit crabs, Other Half and I walk out through slippery gullies towards the sea with Junior, taking photos and collecting interesting creatures for our visitors to see. I find a small rock with a beautiful covering of star ascidian. Continue reading Searching for Starfish

Cornish Rock Pools visits Brittany – Honeycomb Worm Reef

My son loves the beach at Sainte Anne la Palud; wild dunes stretch towards a distant headland and the sand is perfect for building his creations. It’s why we return here at the end of our holiday in Brittany.

Ste Anne at low tide
The beach is vast at low tide

Last time we came it was a high spring tide and the beach was just a sliver of sand strewn with prickly cockles, sea potato urchins and even a dead eel. Now the sea is at its very lowest, a bare glimmer on the horizon. I walk towards distant low cliffs, expecting to find mussel beds around the exposed headland.

I should know by now that rock pooling can be surprising. Continue reading Cornish Rock Pools visits Brittany – Honeycomb Worm Reef